Activity not selected yet:

Background material:
Runners and other athletes have long been told their muscles ache because they're full of lactic acid. But new research questions this locker-room wisdom.
Scientists have discovered that lactic acid actually helps muscles keep firing when the main pathways tire out.
Misconceptions about lactic acid began with a 1929 experiment by Nobel laureate Archibald Hill. Hill observed that a buildup of lactic acid - a byproduct of anaerobic respiration - correlated with a decline in muscle performance in isolated frog muscle.

But the process of muscle excitation is complicated, involving the movement of different ions in a cascade of intermediate steps. It's a bit like a miniature Rube Goldberg machine. The trouble with the 75-year-old experiment was that it observed the effects of acid only on the final steps in the sequence.
"[Hill's experiment was] done on muscle fibers that were not electrically stimulated and were simply exposed to heavily buffered calcium solutions, which means that the major part of the muscle's activation process was bypassed," Thomas H. Pedersen, from the University of Aarhus in Denmark, told LiveScience.
Pedersen and his colleagues have revisited the consequences of increased acidity in muscles. The scientists worked with rat muscle fibers that were specially prepared to allow stimulation at multiple points along the excitation chain.
"We start the muscle activation at the electrical stimulus, which is how the nerve activates the fibers, and this is the step in which we find the protective effect of acidosis," Pedersen said.
This lactic acid protection postpones the onset of fatigue in muscle's that are repeatedly activated. As described in a recent article in Science, Pedersen and his collaborators demonstrated that the presence of lactic acid reduced the threshold for spontaneous firing, making it easier for depleted muscles to keep on going.
The details are complicated, but basically, in an intense workout, potassium ions accumulate outside of working muscles, making it harder for sodium ions to propagate the electrical signal. Lactic acid counters this fatigue by interfering with the flow of chlorine ions - effectively lowering the amount of sodium current necessary for muscle activation.
"So the muscles play a clever trick in regulating the chlorine movements when the sodium system becomes depressed - exactly when needed," Petersen explained.

The implication seems to be that a little lactic acid will enhance performance.
"If athletes are engaged with very intensive exercise such as a 100-meter sprint, the warm up could include a few sprints to prepare the muscles for the upcoming potassium load," Pedersen said. "In fact, sprinters already do this."
But what about the ache, coach? Pedersen said that lactic acid "probably still affects nerve endings in an active muscle and causes pain - just a signal that the muscle is working."

Background material:
In recent years, says George Brooks of the University of California, Berkeley, muscle researchers have had more or less continuous discussions about why muscles fatigue. It was his work that largely discredited the lactic-acid hypothesis, but that left a void.
What did make muscles tired?
The new work in mice, Dr. Brooks said, “is exciting and provocative.” It is a finding that came unexpectedly from a very different line of research. Dr. Marks, a cardiologist, wanted to discover better ways to treat people with congestive heart failure, a chronic and debilitating condition that affects an estimated 4.8 million Americans.
Its hallmark is a damaged heart, usually from a heart attack or high blood pressure. Struggling to pump blood, the heart grows, sometimes becoming so large that it fills a patient’s chest. As the disease progresses, the lungs fill with fluid. Eventually, with congested lungs and a heart that can barely pump, patients become so short of breath that they cannot walk across a room. Half die within five years.
In his efforts to understand why the heart muscle weakened, Dr. Marks focused on the molecular events in the heart. He knew the sequence of events. As the damaged heart tries to deal with the body’s demands for blood, the nervous system floods the heart with the fight or flight hormones, epinephrine and norepinephrine, that make the heart muscle cells contract harder.
The intensified contractions, Dr. Marks and his colleagues discovered, occurred because the hormones caused calcium to be released into the heart muscle cells’ channels.
But eventually the epinephrine and norepinephrine cannot stimulate the heart enough to meet the demands for blood. The brain responds by releasing more and more of those fight or flight hormones until it is releasing them all the time. At that point, the calcium channels in heart muscle are overstimulated and start to leak.
When they understood the mechanisms, the researchers developed a class of experimental drugs that block the leaks in calcium channels in the heart muscle. The drugs were originally created to block cells’ calcium channels, a way of lowering blood pressure.
Dr. Marks and his colleagues altered the drugs to make them less toxic and to rid them of their ability to block calcium channels. They were left with drugs that stopped calcium leaks. The investigators called the drugs rycals, because they attach to the ryanodine receptor/calcium release channel in heart muscle cells. The investigators tested rycals in mice and found that they could prevent heart failure and arrhythmias in the animals. Columbia obtained a patent for the drugs and licensed them to a start-up company, Armgo Pharma of New York. Dr. Marks is a consultant to the company.
It hopes to start testing one of the drugs for safety in patients in the spring, but the tests will not be at Columbia because of the university and investigators’ conflicts of interest. In the meantime, Dr. Marks wondered whether the mechanism he discovered might apply to skeletal muscle as well as heart muscle. Skeletal muscle is similar to heart muscle, he noted, and has the same calcium channel system. And heart failure patients complain that their muscles are extremely weak.
“If you go to the hospital and ask heart failure patients what is bothering them, they don’t say their heart is weak,” Dr. Marks said. “They say they are weak.”
So he and his colleagues looked at making mice exercise to exhaustion, swimming and then running on a treadmill. The calcium channels in their skeletal muscles became leaky, the investigators found. And when they gave the mice their experimental drug, the animals could run 10 to 20 percent longer.
Then, collaborating with David Nieman, an exercise scientist at Appalachian State University in Boone, N.C., the investigators asked whether the human skeletal muscles grew tired for the same reason, calcium leaks.
Highly trained bicyclists rode stationary bikes at intense levels of exertion for three hours a day three days in a row. For comparison, other cyclists sat in the room but did not exercise.
Dr. Nieman removed snips of thigh muscle from all the athletes after the third day and sent them to Columbia, where Dr. Marks’s group analyzed them without knowing which samples were from the exercisers and which were not.The results, Dr. Marks said, were clear. The calcium channels in the exercisers leaked. A few days later, the channels had repaired themselves. The athletes were back to normal.
Of course, even though Dr. Marks wants to develop the drug to help people with congestive heart failure, hoping to alleviate their fatigue and improve their heart functions, athletes might also be tempted to use it if it eventually goes to the market.
The odds are against this particular drug being approved, though, cautions Dr. W. Robb McClellan, a heart disease researcher at U.C.L.A.
“In heart failure, there are three medications that improve mortality, but there have probably been 10 times that many tested,” he said.
Even if the first drug that prevents calcium leaks does not work in patients, Dr. McClellan added, the important advance is to understand the molecular events underlying fatigue. “Then,” he said, “you can design therapies.”
So the day may come when there is an antifatigue drug.
That idea, “is sort of amazing,” said Dr. Steven Liggett, a heart-failure researcher at the University of Maryland. Yet, Dr. Liggett said, for athletes “we have to ask whether it would be prudent to be circumventing this mechanism.”
“Maybe this is a protective mechanism,” he said. “Maybe fatigue is saying that you are getting ready to go into a danger zone. So it is cutting you off. If you could will yourself to run as fast and as long as you could, some people would run until they keeled over and died.”
The Brink Bottom line:
People – including some highly educated people who should know better by now -still perpetuate the myth that lactic acid “build up” is the cause of muscle fatigue. It’s been known for some time now that it’s simply not true. In fact, lactic acid is a fuel, not a foe, to tired muscles. What does cause muscle fatigue was unclear, but what was known was lactic acid “build up” was not the cause, yet most people to this day still cling to that false belief. Another article worth reading that came out a few years ago, is called Lactic Acid Is Not Muscles’ Foe, It’s Fuel! and was also published by the NY Times. From the article:
“Lactic acid is actually a fuel, not a caustic waste product. Muscles make it deliberately, producing it from glucose, and they burn it to obtain energy. The reason trained athletes can perform so hard and so long is because their intense training causes their muscles to adapt so they more readily and efficiently absorb lactic acid.”
“The notion that lactic acid was bad took hold more than a century ago, said George A. Brooks, a professor in the department of integrative biology at the University of California, Berkeley. It stuck because it seemed to make so much sense.”
“It’s one of the classic mistakes in the history of science,” Dr. Brooks said.